International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>ISSN: 2395-0471 (Online),&nbsp;</strong><strong>ISSN: 2521-0394 (Print).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Journal indexed in following major databases; Logos are embedded with respective links. Go to Indexed in page for more indexing information</strong></p> <hr> <p><a href=";journalId=32442" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/copernicus.jpg" alt="" width="115" height="32"></a> <a href=";refid=dcrecen" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/base.png" alt="" width="74" height="35"></a> &nbsp;<a href=";q=2395-0471&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/GoogleScholar1.png" alt="" width="74" height="28"></a> <a href=";qt=results_page" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/logo_wcmasthead_en1.png" alt="" width="102" height="32"></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/pkp-index-301.png" alt=""></a> <a href=";sourceid=30542&amp;la=en&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/sherparomeo-home.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/admin/rsz_21rsz_1rsz_imsear.png" alt="" width="141" height="30"></a></p> <hr> <p>International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research provides an outlet for research scientists in areas of Health Sciences. IJCBR is open access, online &amp; print, peer-reviewed international journal with a primary objective to provide research and applications related to all the health sciences:</p> <p>All branches of Biomedical Sciences,</p> <ul> <li class="show">Biology,</li> <li class="show">Dentistry,</li> <li class="show">Medical Education,</li> <li class="show">Physiotherapy,</li> <li class="show">Pharmacy, and Nursing.</li> </ul> <p>Submitted papers must be in technical English, suitable for scientific publication. All articles have to be original articles that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals. All articles submitted will be peer-reviewed by experts. Receipt of the manuscript will be acknowledged by email. Every effort will be made to complete the review process within 3 weeks and communicated to the corresponding author. Papers should be submitted electronically on the journal's website. The Editorial Board will strive for the quality of the journal and will also index the journal in various indexing bodies and the information will be updated on the journal website from time to time. We welcome all your submissions. I hope you will consider IJCBR for your next submission. If any further information is required please mail to:</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>,&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">;</a>or&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>.</p> <p>The journal accepts manuscripts in the following forms:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Original research articles</li> <li class="show">Reviews</li> <li class="show">Case reports</li> <li class="show">Short communications</li> <li class="show">Letters to editor</li> <li class="show">Discussion papers</li> <li class="show">Clinical Experience</li> <li class="show">Clinicopathological correlation Book reviews and</li> <li class="show">"How to do it" type articles describing new methods or procedures.</li> </ul> <p>Kind regards,</p> <p>IJCBR Editorial Team.</p> Sumathi Publications en-US International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 2521-0394 <p>The journal <strong>allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions</strong>.</p> <p>The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the journal. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.</p> <p><strong>What are my rights as an author?</strong><br>It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as<br>Author. Journal's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:</p> <ul> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.</li> <li class="show">Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department's website or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.</li> <li class="show">You may not post the accepted version of the article in any repository other than those listed above (i.e. you may not deposit in the repository of another institution or a subject-matter repository) until 12 months after publication of the article in the journal.</li> <li class="show">You may use the published article for your own teaching needs or to supply on an individual basis to research colleagues, provided that such supply is not for commercial purposes.</li> </ul> Hematological Profile and Serum Potassium Level in Patients of Chronic Renal Failure at a Tertiary Health Care Center <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) can be defined as an estimated glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) of less than ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> for a minimum period of three months. CKD is commonly associated with various hematological abnormalities especially anemia.<strong> Aim:</strong> The present study was planned to assess the hematological variations in CKD patients as compared to healthy subjects. <strong>Method: </strong>Fifty patients diagnosed with CKD were enrolled for the study. Fifty age and sex-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. <strong>Result:</strong> On comparison of the hematological profile, it was observed that all enrolled CKD patients were anemic with hemoglobin (Hb) less than 13g/dL in males and less than 12 g/dL in females. The mean Hb levels were as low as 7.50 <u>+</u> 1.55 g/dL (P&lt; 0.0001). Correspondingly, the total RBC count of CKD patients was also low. It was also observed that the platelet count was slightly low among CKD patients. However, the mean level was comparable with the control group (P=NS). On further analysis, it was observed that among fifty CKD patients, 46% (n=23) suffered from severe anemia i.e. Hb &lt; 7 gm/dL whereas 48% had moderate anemia i.e. Hb between 7-9.9 gm/dL. However, only 12 % (n=6) CKD patients suffered from thrombocytopenia i.e. platelets count &lt; 1.50 lack/ cmm. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hematological abnormalities may lead to several associated morbidities and may pose a challenge for the maintenance of overall health status for CKD patients. Hence, there is a need to monitor the hematological profile of CKD patients especially those on dialysis so that any abnormality can be detected and managed accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Chronic kidney disease, Anemia, Hematological changes, Potassium, Platelets.</p> Jai Prakash Yogi Bushra Fiza Suraj Godara Maheep Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 1 4 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.54.01 PARENTAL PERCEPTION OF LOW IQ FACTS OR FICTION: RETROSPECTIVE DATA FROM CLINIC IN SEMI RURAL MAHARASHTRA <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To study the association between physical and psychological problems perceived by parents and the IQ of their children. <strong>Methods: </strong>We studied 981 children in the child development center at Ahmednagar. Median age at followup was 7.8y (Q<sub>25</sub>=5.6y and Q<sub>75</sub>=10.4y, Babies underwent IQ evaluation by Binet Kamat scale (n=981); also their physical and psychological problems perceived by parents were documented. We categorized children into 4 categories using a number of problems (physical and psychological separately) viz 1 (no problem), 2 (1 problem), 3 (2 problems), 4 (&gt;2 problems). When we looked at physical problem data, 555 (56.6%) had no problem, 251 (25.6%) had 1, 117 (11.9%) had 2, and the remaining 58 (5.9%) had more than 2. For psychological problems like not interested in studies, speech problems don't remember, don't understand, cannot concentrate, fears, etc. The distribution was 221 (22.5%), 212 (21.6%), 222 (22.6%) and 326 (33.3%) respectively. <strong>Result: </strong>The increasing trend of mean IQ for physical problem parameters from nil to &gt;2 categories and decreasing prevalence of low IQ using the Binet Kamat scale were not significant. However, for psychological problems, the decreasing and statistically significant trend (p=0.000) was present for mean IQ, and a significant increasing trend (p=0.029) for the prevalence of low IQ was observed. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Psychological problems were associated with IQ. Numbers of problems were inversely correlated with IQ.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Parental Perception; Low IQ; Behavioral Problems; Physical Problems.</p> Suchit Suresh Tamboli Charudatt Joglekar Vasant Desle Anvesh Tamboli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 5 9 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.54.02 DETERMINATION OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS USING FOLDSCOPE WITH SMARTPHONE <p>We have traditionally used a Microscope in a clinical laboratory for the determination of white blood cells of human blood smear. Now, in this study, we were used Foldscope with Smartphone in the place of Microscope and examine many samples of human blood smear which was collected from local diagnostic centers. We were very easily quantity &amp; morphology analysis of all types of WBC cells such as Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils in blood smear with the help of Foldscope &amp; image taken by Smartphone. The main objective of this study is to use Foldscope for quantity &amp; morphology analysis of human WBCs at field level especially poor resource area where healthcare services or centers is not available &amp; where carry of the microscope is not possible.</p> Ranu Kumar Prasad Kapildeo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 10 13 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.54.03 Clinico-Microbiological Profile of Infective Keratitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Eastern India <p><strong>Background: </strong>Infective Keratitis (Microbial Keratitis) is an infection of the cornea caused by a wide spectrum of microbial agents. Its main clinical presentation is a Corneal ulcer that is defined as a Loss of corneal epithelium with infiltration and suppuration of the underlying stroma. According to the World health organization (WHO), corneal diseases are among the major causes of vision loss and blindness in the world today, second only to cataract in overall importance. <strong>Aim:</strong> To isolate and identify the pathogenic organism <strong>Method:</strong> The study was conducted in 45 patients diagnosed with corneal ulcer attending Ophthalmology OPD, MKCG Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur over a period of 2 months. The material was scraped from the leading edge and base of the ulcer and was inoculated onto Blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar for culture and onto 2 slides for Gram’s stain and 10% KOH wet mount. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. <strong>Results</strong>: Out of a total of 45 patients, 35were males. The majority of the patients belonged to the age group of 50-60 years. Pain, Redness, Hypopyon was most commonly seen in Bacterial keratitis. In Fungal Keratitis, Redness (80%), Blurred vision (80%) was seen. The most common occupation was Farmers (66.6%). Trauma was the most common risk factor (23 isolates). The majority were bacterial isolates (29 isolates, 64.4%) followed by fungal (5 isolates, 11.1%). The predominant isolate was <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (68.9%). Staphylococcus aureus showed 70% sensitivity to Moxifloxacin and 65% sensitivity to Gentamycin. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;Knowledge of the local prevalence of etiological agents of IK and their susceptibility patterns helps in guiding ophthalmologists to select appropriate antibiotic for empirical therapy.</p> Bimoch Projna Paty Tadepalli Maitreyi Sanghamitra Padhi Banojini Parida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 14 17 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.54.04 SUBLINGUAL VITAMIN D3 DRUG THERAPY IN VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY PATIENTS AT PRAVARA RURAL HOSPITAL <p>The present study was aimed to study the effect of Sublingual Vitamin D3 on Serum Vitamin D level in Vitamin D deficiency patients. This was a cross-sectional and interventional study. All the Vitamin D deficiency patients of age 18-60years and either gender, willing to participate in the study were included. Patients who had greater than 20 ng/ml were excluded from the study. The total number of participants in our study was 200, out of these 111 males and 89 females, the mean age in our study was 51.07 ± 7.39Yrs. All volunteers were given sublingual vitamin D3 (60,000IU) in six doses every fifteen days of follow up for 3 months. The subject’s serum 25(OH)D levels were estimated before and after the treatment of sublingual vitamin D3. There was a statistically significant difference in serum vitamin D3 level before 16.61±6.71 ng/ml and after 35.80±7.80 ng/ml after treatment with Sublingual Vitamin D3. Six doses of 60,000IU of Vitamin D3 sublingual route having improved the role of serum 25(OH)D levels in the treatment of Vitamin D3 deficiency patients.<br>Keywords: Vitamin D3; Sublingual route</p> Sanjeeva Kumar Goud T Rahul Kunkulol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 18 20 10.31878/ijcbr.2019.54.05 MODIFIED TREATMENT TOLERABILITY EVALUATION SCORE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING TEMPORARY ANCHORAGE DEVICES (TAD) UNDER TOPICAL LIGNOCAINE AEROSOL 15% WITH LIGNOCAINE WITH OR WITHOUT ADRENALINE INFILTRATION DURING ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> This study was undertaken primarily to compare the efficacy and safety of topical Lignocaine aerosol 15%, Lignocaine 2% with or without Adrenaline (1:80000) used in Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) placement in Orthodontic Treatment. <strong>Method: </strong>The study population included all patients of both gender and aged above 12 years, who were scheduled for placement of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) in orthodontic treatment, and willing to participate in the study were included in the study. Depending on the local anaesthetic used, the patients were divided into Group 1 (Topical Lignocaine Aerosol 15% USP + Lignocaine 2% with Adrenaline), Group 2 (Lignocaine 2%) and Group 3 (Lignocaine 2% with Adrenaline). All the groups were assessed for immediate adverse drug reactions.&nbsp; The severity of adverse effects was graded by using Modified Treatment Tolerability Evaluation Score (MTTES) for the signs and symptoms <strong>Results: </strong>There was no statistically significant difference between age and gender of the three treatment groups.&nbsp; MTTES score was lowest in Group 2 followed by Group 3. It was significantly higher in Group 1. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Group 1 (topical and infiltration lignocaine) and 3 combinations showed higher MTTES score for the adverse effect profile, whereas Group 2 appeared safer in terms of both the variables. Thus, use of topical and infiltration lignocaine raises concerns regarding safety of this combination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shubhangi Mani Nikita Darda Toshniwal NG Nilesh Mote Vishal Dhanjani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 21 24