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This study was designed to investigate the effect of oral intake of yogurt on plasma glucose and serum lipid profile levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein) in apparently healthy students. A total of 30 subjects (16 males and 14 females) were recruited to serve as both test and control groups. Each subject was advised to abstain from milk and similar probiotic food consumption for three weeks. Baseline samples (after an overnight fast and 2 hours postprandial after oral intake of carbohydrate meal) were collected from both males and females at day 0 as control samples, and levels of glucose and lipid profile were evaluated. Subsequently, in addition to their normal diet, each of the subjects received 100ml of yoghurt daily for 21 days. After an overnight fast, post research (test 1stand 2nd) samples (fasting blood sample and 2 hours postprandial after oral intake of carbohydrate meal) were collected on days 11 and 22 respectively and the levels of glucose and lipid profile were re-evaluated. Blood glucose and lipid concentrations were determined using standard methods. There were a significant increase in mean serum triglyceride (TG) value 11days following yogurt intake (intermediate consumption) when compared to the baseline level (0.63±0.15 Vs 0.53±0.19; p<0.05). Also, there was a significant decrease in mean serum TG value 21 days following yogurt intake (post-consumption) when compared to baseline and intermediate levels (0.50±0.19 Vs 0.53±0.19 and 0.50±0.19 Vs0.63±0.15; p<0.05) respectively. There were a significant increase in mean serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value 21days following yogurt intake when compared to day 11 (intermediate consumption) and baseline levels (1.36±0.34 Vs 1.14±0.24 and 1.36±0.34 Vs 0.99±0.19; p<0.05) respectively. Also, there was a significant increase in mean serum total cholesterol (TC) value 21 days following yoghurt intake when compared to day 11 and baseline levels (p<0.05) respectively. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level remained unchanged 11 and 21 days following yoghurt intake (p>0.05). There was a significant increase in the mean blood glucose level (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that the lipid profile and blood glucose levels in individuals consuming yogurt may experience significant alterations which may have important clinical implications in the management of diabetes. Further studies may be necessary for understanding the mechanism behind these effects.
Keywords: Yogurt; Probiotics; Diabetes mellitus; Cardiovascular disease; Glucose; Lipid profile.
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